From 1st edition 1960
In ancient times by the grace of the Almighty – the all controlling Supreme Lord , India reached in its highest stage of glory and perfection, so far as rationalism, emotionalism, absolute knowledge Divine love an Bliss are concerned . Indian well-renowned sage
askaracharjya declared fervently about the truth of the Solar-System, the Specific gravity and other scientific Truths . In that auspicious era Vedic and Arya`n sages reached their fulfilled glorious Status of self-realization, salvation, even direct perception of The Supreme Lord. Their intense austerity, painful lengthy penance knew no bounds. As a sweet and benevolent result of their renunciation, deep meditation and various sorts of austerities, innumerable spiritual solutions were properly and wonderfully solved-sublime Truths were revealed making the spiritual Religious Path more simple agreeable and comprehensible . But now a days we Indians are following a quite different path from that adopted in ancient times . By imitating the western fashion we are habituated to be deeply attached to external material objects or sense enjoyment only. Thus we are entering gradually towards a dark gloomy end.
Modern scientific discoveries have reached to a wonderful status even touching the moon and contemplating to reach the other planets also, although they are situated in a very far distance ! – All these successful undertakings are but material and external ; ofcourse they may be of finer subtle state of things.
Vedic and Arya`n sages by their extra-ordinary penance, attained mastery over all earthly material things and objects not only externally, but internally too. It is alluded in old scriptures that accomplished persons or saints of India could float over the sky and passing through the ethers, they could travel from one planet to another – even reaching the different Heavens also. It is also told that Guru Nan`nak Dev and Guru Gorasksha Na`th (the founder of a special Yoga system) through some Jogic process passed through the sky and reached a
Himalayan gathering of well-known Rishis or fulfilled saints. Therefore we may rightly come to this conclusion that internal Spiritual Power is more efficacious and fruitful than the external amazing discoveries of modern science . Modern saints of India firmly believe that, internal spiritual Truths achieved by Arya`n sages of old and the external highest scientific discoveries of future time, would converge and meet in a luminous central point ! – reaching the radiant place of the All-powerful Infinite Supreme Lord.
Now let us reflect about the works of an accomplished scientist of the present time, who aims to travel over planets. Apart from believing God and devotion towards Him, may I ask him this simple question – has he ever realized his own self or individualized soul ? – which is full of Sat-Chit-Anabda, that is to say – everlasting Truth and Energy, Absolute knowledge, eternal love and Supreme Bliss ! If not, is not his external successes in perceiving the scientific Truths are imperfect ones – owing to absence of self-knowledge or any other attempt for realizing his inner-self and all other resourceful energies within ? – No more of that ; please excuse me for such scrutinizing reflection .
Now returning to my present topics I say that Arya`n sages divided the human spiritual life in four gradual Steps . Firstly – to become a perfect rational human being. Secondly – to lead a Divine Life for the good of others . Thirdly – to meditate persistently on God and thereby acquire Divine energy and self-consciousness within . Fourthly – to become one with Brahma or the Supreme Lord, i.e., attaining salvation . These are the four instructions and practices to be adopted by aspirants gradually . After mentioning another special points, I shall close my topics, because it is going to be a lengthy one . The University-learning of the British period, also of the present time, is most defective – owing to absence of any spiritual or moral training in any branch whatsoever . Present learning is generally meant for gaining economic prosperity only . But material achievements however resourceful they may turn cannot impart real peace or happiness ; because these are external accomplishments only . One may acquire so many university-degrees of India or abroad, but such higher achievements cannot make a perfect and fulfilled human being – such a person is bound to plunge in worldly illusive material attachments resulting in sorrow or mishaps, to such an addicted person real peace and happiness in nothing but a dream . Therefore in order to revive our lost glory and ancient Indian spiritual cultures, it is urgently necessary to introduce Spiritual and moral Training to the boys and girls of mother-India, in every school and college of the Indian Universities . For the benefit and Spiritual Emancipation of nearly thirty crore of Hindu people of India, it is urgently and inevitably necessary at present . With these remarks I close my reflection .
(1885 – 1965)
Calcutta – 60
MANUSHYATWA (The exalted Humanity)
Before commencing any good work, it is necessary to pay homage to The Almighty (Supreme God) ; so I bow my head to the effulgent feet of the Almerciful omniscient Maheswara – The Great God of Wisdom – Who is the Jagat – Guru or The Master of the universe .
In Judging Manushyatwa or the exalted humanity, we must know first, what is meant by humanity ? Who is worthy to be called a human being ? What is teh difference between a human being and a beast ? The Supreme Lord Sri Krishna in this enlightened sermon The “Uttar Geeta` ” described thus –
” Eating, Sleeping, fear, sensuality or copulation are common activities of human beings, beasts and birds ; but Jna’nam or super wisdom is the special attribute which clearly differentiates human beings from other creatures. Hence it naturally follows that those who are devoid of wisdom or spiritual knowledge (Jna’nam) are equal to beasts . “
If People are apt to indulge themselves in the beastly attributes only , then what difference is there between human and animals ? For what reason a man should be called a rational being ? Why human beings are considered to be the ideal creations of The Almighty ? And as such they stand as the supreme of all other creatures, being placed in a far exalted level . In early times, Vedic sages and scriptures also proclaimed again and again that, human birth is rare and very difficult to attain . The above mentioned various questions, naturally arise in inquisitive minds, but there exists clear and proper solutions of such ideal controversies .
God has gifted human beings with such special and solemn qualifications and talents for which they really deserve to be rational beings, living in a superior plane of existence, as compared with animal realm . When we look upon the superior human attributes, such as Vivek (conscience), Vaira’gna (abstinence) Jna’nam (wisdom), Bhakti (supreme love or devotion towards God), unselfish service, magnanimity, kindness, truthfulness, Integrity, Justice, Patience, self-restraint etc. We can naturally realise why human beings are best of all other creatures in the World . On the other hand, human short-comings, such as – selfishness brutality (conscientiousness activities), stupidity, jealousy, brutish sensuality, autocracy and such other lower propensities seen in some of human beings, we are naturally fixed in the horns of dilemma, as to whether such people deserve to be called rational human beings .
Thus circumstanced, it naturally strikes our mind to enquire what is the real cause of such differences ? If human beings are regarded as ideal creations of the Almighty, why divergent good and bad activities are found amongst them ? That is to say, human beings are said to exist in a far superior level in comparison with other creatures ; if so, why do we find beastly – natured men and women making breach of peace and degenerating social standard in this World ?
Now in order to come to a just conclusion to some such enquiries and reflections, it is necessary to discuss the Theory of Evolution, as described in the Poura’nic Scriptures ; in other words, we are to know, how lower staged vegetable – shaped creatures are gradually transformed into higher placed human beings, by well-arranged Evolution of nature as revealed by the sages of India .
FOUR GROUPS OF NATURE
according to the Poura`nic Doctrines , all the creatures of the World are divided into four principal groups , Viz : – First group Udvijja (creatures in the shape of plants , vegetables etc) ; the Second Group – Swedaja (creatures coming to life from gummy or watery substances) ; Third Group – Andaja (creatures coming out from eggs) and Fourth Group – Jara`yuja (creatures delivered from uterus ) . In the primal stage , creatures naturally evolve and take the shape of various trees , plants creepers etc . By gradual development , vegetable life ends and creatures are uplifted to the Second Group . In this stage the fixed vegetable life disappears and they are changed into moving minute worms , insects or creatures coming out of Sweda (gummy or aquatic substances). Such sort of creatures are generally visible in polluted stagnant waters, rotten eatables and other filthy substances . In some cases we can also find gummy matters covering some portion of leaves or back of trees ; by and by , within fixed time hundreds and thousands of worms come out from their gummy bed and begin to move to and fro throughout the tree – these are also creatures of the Second stage. Then by natural course of evolution these creatures transcend into the Third Stage of group of Andaja ( creatures coming out of eggs ). After all these creatures are promoted to the Fourth stage Jara`yuja ; in this Group creatures take their respective formation or shape having life and remaining within the uterus ; thus they are finally delivered from the womb of the mother .
The Supreme Goddess Bhagavati in her enlightened sermon embodied as Bhagavati-Geeta` described thus — ” Oh ! The Ruler of Mountains , please know this from me that , amongst the five principal elementary matters (Pancha Bhuta*) major part of the gross element (earth) , together with four other elementary matters procreates the four principal groups of creatures — such as Udvijja , Swadaja , Andaja and Jara`yuja . Oh King ! amongst them , trees plants herbs creepers etc.are Udvijja ; minute warms , gnats , watery insects etc, are Swedaja ; Birds , Snakes etc. are Andaja ; animals and human beings are of Jara`yuja Class. ”
According to Indian Sciptures , every living being is bound to pass through these four principal groups or stage of Nature . Thus the creatures of Jara`yuja class gradually being uplifted to the higher level , assumes the shape of human figures .
Some of the Indian Pura`nas (old doctrines of Vedavya`sa ) proceed further in this connection and elaborately describe thus — “Every living creatures is ordained to pass through two million births being trees , plants , creepers etc. Then by the Evolution Theory of Nature , he is to proceed through nine lac births in weedy shapes within aquatic beds . After that he is to pass through nine lacs of births being such creatures who are apt to live and move both in water and land (Uvachar) Viz. – Tortoise , crocodiles etc. After finishing this stage , he is bound to go through “one million births through eggs , being serpents , birds etc. After that he is to pass through three million births as quadrupeds or four footed animals . Then he is to go through four lacs of births becoming various sorts of monkey . Finally , by the Law of Nature , monkey , assumes the shape of a human being . As a result of good and bad deeds performed by him in worldly life , he is bound to several pass through several human births and deaths , In this manner gradually he transcends to the solemn stage being a Brahmin ( Dwija i.e. having a second spiritual birth ) ; from this superior and noble stage , renouncing all sorts of corporal and worldly attachments , he attains liberation being free from all sorts of bondage and thus enters the highest goal , becoming one with Brahma or The Supreme Lord ” *
Some of the Western Philosophers also agree to this sort of Evolution Theory ( as revealed in India ) to some extent . *
From vegetable births up to animal or monkey – status , all such creatures exist , having no conscience or discriminating power . Hence they are deprived from judging right or wrong , virtue or vice , so they are not to bound to accept the consequences of their good or evil acts . Thus being untouched by virtue or vice , they remain free from all sorts of acts ordinate their fates and future lives . Thus sort of animals after each birth and death , are bound to assume pre-ordained shapes fixed and arranged by Supreme Nature . This systematic arrangements continues until a human birth is obtained . In pre-human stages of living creatures , Supreme Nature always takes the responsibility of guiding and maintaining them according to Divine plan and other . When a living creature after so many births and deaths , passing through so many lengthy and peculiar stages of life , take the form of a human being for the first time , he is unable to renounce his beastly habits first time , he is unable to renounce his beastly habits of previous births totally . That is to say , beastly nature and passionate brutish activities still remain prominent in such persons . Such people although guise in human shapes are no better than beasts . Thus one can justly call such people as a beast , instead of a human being . I hope it would not be irrelevant to describe here shortly an example of beastly habits observed by everybody in their daily pursuits of worldly environments .
1* Gross and finer forms of earth , water , fire, air , and ether are calle ‘Pancha Bhuta‘
2* Vrihat Visnu Pura`na .
3* Here compare this Indian Theory , that monkeys are transformed into human beings with that of Darwin , who also said that , human beings are evolved from monkeys .
An Example of Beastly Habit & aim of Human Life
Let us observe the ordinary habits of dogs. Where there happens any loss of their interest or when a dog comes to take share from others meal , they would quarrel or fight with each other . But for such selfish actions they are not to be blamed . Because when we observe beastly actions of selfish persons , we find that nothing is impossible to them , in order to gratify their beastly appetite or fulfill their selfish motives ; they can even hurl death to their opponents . Therefore selfishness or quarrel amongst animals are not be blamed . Now let us peep into such state of things where there is absence of any such selfish interest or motive . Suppose one unknown dog is passing by a road . Naturally it has neither any mischievous motive , nor any bit of selfish interest with other dogs of locality . It is simply going its desired destination . But alas ! what would the condition if other dogs of the locality chance to find it passing in this unguarded manner . It would not be difficult to imagine the future fate of the poor animal . The local dogs are sure to rush and attack it simultaneously and make an end of its life . If the passing dog is fortunate enough , then it would be able to escape from clutch of these ruffians with great difficulty ; otherwise there would be an end of its life .
If we deeply ponder over the above occurrence , we are sure to come into the conclusion that , such sort of brutal deeds are really blamable . But it is astonishing that , we find such brutal mentality also existing in some of human beings . Here I would cite a true example which chanced to occur in my presence . There happened a rioting between two strong parties in a Bazaar ; at that time , one person talked to another acquainted man thus – ” Brother , take care of my bundle for sometime and let me enjoy pleasure by boxing to and fro amongst these rioters . So saying that rogue kept this bundle with the other man and dashed amongst the fighting crowd giving several blows hither and thither , then he came back . Now can we not rightly compare these activities of the rogue with that of the above mentioned quarrel of the dogs ? ”
Persons who have become rational by the rule of nature , try their best to pacify any quarrel or other disturbances leading to any beach of peace ; but those who have animal propensities to a greater extent , enjoy delight in such quarrels and try to fan them to the utmost instead of appeasing , in order to satisfy their beastly pleasure . Under these circumstances every man of this earth , cannot be really called a ‘man’ although his external appearance is man-like . When we find a person ready to commit extreme mischief to another in order to gain some selfish ends or when we observe in society that , some one is oppressing the weak or tyrannizing his dependents abusing his gifted power , surely it would be improper really to reckon them as rational human beings . How can we call such person rational , who seek pleasure in brutal and oppressive acts only ?
Now calculating all such circumstances we are to understand that these brutish persons are of first human birth only ; that is to say – they are enliven to human category only for the first time , after passing through several animal stages fixed by nature . Hence they are unable to renounce their previous animal habits . But judging them from proper and natural stand point , these persons are not to be blamed for their present misdeeds ; because by natural course , after passing through complex reactionary stages of human life , the discriminating power of their conscience would be evoked and uplifted in due time . Thus passing through the several human births , these persons would reach the sublime stage of self-controlled spiritual life , called Manushyatwa ( the exalted Human life ) . By and by they would be uplifted to Divine Saint-like status called Devatwa . Gradually these persons would become master of his passions with full control of his mind and body , reaching God-like stage called Iswaratwa ( i.e., becoming all powerful Lord of one’s body and mind ) . Finally such persons would reach the highest attainable stage aimed in human life , called Brahmatwa , having fully liberated himself from all sorts of worldly attachments and bondage , such persons would become Supreme God-like .